[영어 문법 기초] 13. 동명사


구워 먹는 영어, 빵쌤(Brad.T)입니다. 동명사는 의미와 성격이 To 부정사의 명사 적 용법과 매우 유사하지만 조금은 다르기에 동명사 to부정사를 잘 구분하도록 해야합니다. 목적어로 동명사만 가지는 동사들도 있기에 암기에 매우 유의해야 합니다.


동명사란?

동명사란 동사 뒤에 ‘~ing’를 붙임으로써 명사의 성질을 띄게 된 단어를 의미합니다. 명사의 성질을 띄기에 주어, 보어, 목적어로써 사용될 수 있습니다.

동명사는 동사의 성질도 가지고 있기 때문에 목적어를 취할 수 있습니다.

동명사 주어

동명사 주어는 단수 취급합니다.

To 부정사의 명사 적 용법과 유사하기에 To 부정사를 대신 사용할 수도 있습니다. To 부정사의 명사 적 용법의 경우 [영어 문법 기초] 12. to 부정사 – 명사 적 용법, 형용사 적 용법, 부사 적 용법을 참고하시기 바랍니다.

  • Example
    • Reading a book is my hobby.
      = To listen to music is my hobby.
      = it is my hobby to listen to music.
    • Speaking French well needs lots of practice.
      = To speak French well needs lots of practice.
      = It needs lots of practice to speak French well.

동명사 보어

  • Example
    • His hobby is playing soccer.
      = His hobby is to play soccer.
    • My sister’s goal is entering Harvard University.
      = My sister’s goal is to enter Harvard University.

동명사/to부정사 목적어

동명사를 목적어로 취하는 동사

avoid, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, imagine, give up, mind, keep, put off, quit, suggest, stop, practice

  • Example
    • Do you mind closing the door?
    • James enjoyed hiking the mountain.
    • When does he finish doing homework?

to 부정사를 목적어로 취하는 동사

agree, decide, expect, hope, learn, need, plan, promise, refuse, want, would like, wish

  • Example
    • We agreed to sign the contract.
    • My parents decided to move our house.
    • I hope to see you soon.

동명사 to 부정사 모두 목적어로 취하는 동사

뜻이 같은 경우

begin, continue, hate, intend, like, love, start

  • Example
    • Do you like going for a walk?
      = Do you like to go for a walk?
    • It began raining.
      = It began to rain.
    • She started crying.
      = She started to cry.

뜻이 다른 경우

try+ 동명사(시험 삼아) ~해 보다
+ to 부정사~하려고 애쓰다, 노력하다
  • Example
    • I tried opening the jar. (나는 그 항아리를 열려고 시도해 봤다.)
    • I tried to pass the exam. (나는 그 시험을 통과하려고 노력했다.)
remember+ 동명사(기억)을 기억하다
+ to 부정사(할 일)을 기억하다
  • Example
    • I remember going on a vacation with her. (나는 그녀와 여행 갔던 것을 기억한다.)
    • I remember to finish the work. (나는 그 일을 끝낼 것을 기억한다.)
forget+ 동명사(기억)을 잊다
+ to 부정사(할 일)을 잊다
  • Example
    • He forgot leaving the light on. (그는 전등을 켜놓은 것을 잊었다.)
    • He forgot to turn off the light. (그는 전등을 꺼야 할 것을 잊었다.)
stop+ 동명사~하는 것을 멈추다
+ to 부정사~하려고 멈추다(to 부정사 부사적 용법)
  • Example
    • He stopped arguing with her. (그는 그녀와 논쟁하는 것을 멈추었다.)
    • He stopped to buy some groceries. (그는 식료품을 사기 위해 멈추었다.)

동명사 숙어 표현

  • be excited about ~ing: ~에 대해 흥분하다
    • Example
      • They are very excited about going on a field trip.
  • be good at ~ing: ~을 잘하다, ~에 능숙하다
    • Example
      • John is good at cooking pork cutlet.
  • be interested in ~ing: ~에 관심이 있다
    • Example
      • I am interested in joining the chess club.
  • be responsible for ~ing: ~에 책임이 있다
    • Example
      • She is responsible for keeping the fruit fresh.
  • be surprised at ~ing: ~에 대해 놀라다
    • Example
      • He was surprised at winning the lottery.
  • be tired of ~ing: ~을 지겨워하다, ~에 싫증이 나다
    • Example
      • Luke is tired of dealing with his girlfriend.
  • be worried about ~ing: ~에 대해 걱정하다
    • Example
      • She is worried about going in the abandoned house.
  • feel like ~ing: ~하고 싶다
    • Example
      • We don’t feel like going outside.
  • look forward to ~ing: ~을 고대하다
    • Example
      • We’re looking forward to meeting you soon.
  • on ~ing: ~하자마자
    • Example
      • On sitting on his chair, he grabbed the pencil on the desk.
  • thank … for ~ing: ~에 대해 …에게 감사하다
    • Example
      • Thank you for giving a chance.
  • object to ~ing: ~에 반대하다
    • Example
      • I object to electing her as the school president.
  • keep(prevent/stop) A from ~ing: A가 ~하는 것을 막다(못하게 하다)
    • Example
      • My mom kept me from hanging out with my friends.
  • be used to ~ing: ~하는 데 익숙하다
    • Example
      • I am used to studying for 10 hours a day.
    • Tip.✏ be used to + v : v 하는데 사용되다
      used to + v : v 하곤 했다
  • be busy ~ing: ~하느라 바쁘다
    • Example
      • He is busy hanging out with his girlfriend.
  • be worth ~ing: ~할 만한 가치가 있다
    • Example
      • His idea is worth trying.
  • cannot help ~ing: ~하지 않을 수 없다
    = cannot but + v
    • Example
      • We couldn’t help buying the new game.
        = We couldn’t but buy the new game.
  • go ~ing: ~하러 가다
    • Example
      • Let’s go iceskating!
  • have trouble(difficulty/a hard time) (in) ~ing: ~하는 데 어려움을 겪다.
    • Example
      • I had difficulty finding the button.
  • How(What) about ~ing: ~하는 게 어때?
    = What do you say to ~ing?
    • Example
      • How(What) about staying home for the whole weekend?
        = What do you say to staying home for the whole weekend?
  • It’s no use ~ing ~: ~해 봐야 소용없다
    = There is no use in ~ing ~.
    • Example
      • It’s no use trying to save her.
        = There is no use in trying to save her.
  • need ~ing: ~할 필요가 있다
    = need to be + p.p.
    • Example
      • Your boat needs fixing.
        = Your boat needs to be fixed.
  • spend + 시간(돈) (+in) ~ing: ~하느라 …를 소비하다
    • Example
      • She spends $1000 a month buying her clothes.
  • There is no ~ing: ~하는 것은 불가능하다
    = It is impossible to + v
    • Example
      • There is no finishing the job by Friday.
        = It is impossible to finish the job by Friday.